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Guide to Creatine

Creatine is an essential part of any Track Cyclists' Training and can really assist you in improving your sprinting power.In 1832 the French scientist Chevreul discovered a new ingredient of meat to which he gave the name Creatine, according to the source from which it was extracted (Kreas: Greek for flesh).

The German scientist Justus von Liebig confirmed that it is a regular constituent of flesh. Levels in wild animals were 10 times higher compared to captive animals suggesting that physical activity might have an influence on the amount present in flesh. A meat extract (Liebigs Fleischextrakt) was the only source for Creatine supplementation over the next century.

Anecdotal reports in the early 1990's suggested that its supplementation might improve sport performance. British track and field 1992 Olympic champions Linford Christie (100 m dash) and Sally Gunnell (400 m hurdles) reportedly used it, as did the Cambridge University rowing team in training for three months before defeating the heavily favored Oxford.

Numerous controlled clinical trials followed in the upcoming years proving the benefits of its supplementation in different sports.

Many celebrated professional athletes and Olympic champions acknowledge Creatine's use and it's estimated that 80% of the athletes at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta used Creatine. Mark McGwire, one of major league baseball's greatest sluggers, used it during the 1998 season and his legendary race to set the single season home run record, making it the most popular sports nutrition product in the USA.

Supplementation has become a common practice among professional, elite, collegiate and amateur athletes to enhance exercise performance.

Today, it is one of the best-studied supplements in the field of sports nutrition and its proven efficacy as an ergogenic substance was reviewed and accepted by numerous authorities


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Pure Creatine Quality

When it comes to the manufacture, the three pillars of quality ”careful selection of raw materials, patented high-performance technology, and precise chemical analysis” mthe way are all crucial when selecting your Creatine supplement. If it doesn't say Creapure® on the label, it's not pure. Creapure® is the safest in the world market. And the most effective.

In a market always looking for new and improved products, there are now more than 20 different derivatives sold commercially that promise better results than conventional creatine monohydrate .

But no scientific studies have been done on these new products that prove that they enhance performance, unlike creatine monohydrate, which, as the subject of more than 300 studies, is one of the most researched dietary supplements around. 

So if you are given the choice to choose between largely untested, unproven products and one that is not only proven beyond doubt to be the most effective but also the safest in the world, which would you choose? The choice is both logical and simple, especially if you put safety first .

Creapure® has been studied extensively and absolutely no toxic side effects have been discovered. All of the studies carried out on Creapure® have been in accordance with internationally accepted guidelines and standards (FDA and EU) under GLP (Good Laboratory Practice) conditions.

Furthermore, numerous animal and human trials have been commissioned to test the safety of Creapure® as a supplement. In addition to the classic toxicological tests, Creapure® has been investigated in more than 50 clinical trials. People of all ages tested Creapure® in sports and non-sports applications over a period of more than 21 months without experiencing any side-effects.

Products with more than 5% impurities have been found on the market. The reaction conditions as well as the treatment of the crude Creatine Monohydrate are crucial for the quality of the product.

Inferior starting materials or reducing the amount of water during "recrystallization" results in increased amounts of impurities (such as Dicyandiamide (dimerization product of Cyanamide), Creatinine and Dihydrotriazines).

Worldwide authorities warn about potential health risks resulting from present impurities in Dietary Supplements. Degussa's Creapure has a very strict specification on potential impurities in Creatine Monohydrate.


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Daily Creatine Dosage

A high-dose loading phase of 20 g (4 times 5 g) Creatine per day for 5 days followed by a maintenance phase of 2 to 5 g (once daily) per day is common for athletes.

Based on body weight, 0.3 g per kg body mass per day as a loading phase and per kg body mass per day as a maintenance phase are suggested.

Alternatively a low-dose long-term usage will result in the same muscle levels (3g for 28 days). Taking larger amounts for more than 5 days does not result in significantly higher levels and is therefore unnecessary.


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Is Creatine Suitable for Vegetarians?

Creatine was discovered in the first half of the 19th century as a component of beef tea and for quite some time Liebigs Fleischextrakt (a meat extract) was the only source. In the 1990's chemical synthesis became more efficient and has been established in the large-scale industrial production. Degussa developed a synthetic route (cf. US patent 5,719,319) guaranteeing highest quality, purity and safety and is marketing this product under the Creapure brand. Due to the fact that Creapure is synthesized by chemical reaction using non-animal based starting materials Creapure is GUARANTEED FREE of BSE transmissible agents and suitable for vegetarians.


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Creatine Stability in Water

Creatine is stable for a limited time in aqueous solution due to a degradation into Creatinine. The speed of degradation is:

-Dependant on the pH (the lower the pH the faster the degradation)
-Dependant on the temperature (the higher the temperature the faster the degradation).




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Creatine and Doping

In no way is creatine banned or illegal, it is considered as food by the IOC and is a naturally occurred substance. The Creatine content in the muscle is limited and can only be increased up to certain amount. An athlete can increase his or her Creatine muscle content through regular diet (e.g. high-meat or high-fish diets).

Does it improve performance in athletes?

The effects of Creatine supplementation were studied in people with different training background and athletic abilities, from competitive college athletes to relatively untrained beginners. Supplementation significantly increases performance in a variety of sports such as sprinting, repeated jumping, swimming, kayaking/rowing, resistance exercise or cycling. Short-term Creatine supplementation improves, for example, maximal strength/power (5-15%), work performed during sets of maximum efforts (5-20%), power production during short sprints (app. 30%) and work performed during repetitive sprints (5-15%).

Supplementation is common amongst bodybuilders, power lifters, wrestlers, rowers, cyclists, mountain bikers, tennis players, skiers, or players in American football, soccer, rugby, basketball, ice hockey, volleyball or handball teams as well as track and field athletes (sprinter, shot put, javelin, discus).

Different mechanisms are involved in the ergogenic effects of Creatine supplementation:

1) higher Phosphocreatine concentrations serving as an immediate buffer to ATP during exercise,
(2) increased Phosphocreatine resynthesis rate during and after exercise due to increased levels of free Creatine,
(3) smaller decrease in muscle pH during exercise,
(4) enhanced training load and
(5) increasing muscle mass (absolute power output).